Continuity mistake: Kirk's arrow strikes the Klingon in the knee. But a few shots later, the shaft is protruding from his thigh, several inches above its original position. Still later, he's holding one hand to his calf just below the knee, which isn't where the arrow was either time. (00:43:40)
Deliberate mistake: When the decoyed Enterprise heads back to Capella, the special effects shot is reversed to indicate that it's going back in the other direction. Unfortunately, this gives us two brief shots of the ship with the registration numbers backwards. (00:37:40)
Revealing mistake: In the tent after Kirk and friends give up their weapons, there is a small fire in the holder in the center of the room. Although the flames are slightly off center to the camera's left, the are projections of flame light from off the camera's right offscreen.
Continuity mistake: The Klingon is standing on a hillside above Maab, yet when he fires his phaser, the beam streaks upward. From that angle, he wouldn't have hit anything but sky. Nevertheless, the beam somehow re-angles itself downward so that it hits and kills Maab. (00:46:05)
Continuity mistake: In a wide shot of the Capellons and the Klingon walking down the hill, the Klingon trips and falls to the ground and picks himself up. Next shot, tight group with Klingon, he is suddenly brushing off his pants.