Factual error: There's no way that the knife that killed Bob was long enough to go through his body and impale the wall behind him. And a butcher knife cannot "pin" a human body to a wall and just stay put, they aren't strong enough.
Plot hole: We see Michael wearing the mask throughout the day, from morning at the Myers House, to mid-day outside Laurie's school, to afternoon when Tommy is leaving school, yet when Laurie and Annie see the sheriff in front of the hardware store on the way to their babysitting jobs (presumably in late afternoon or early evening), the store's alarm is still ringing and the sheriff mentions that one of the items stolen was a Halloween mask.
Revealing mistake: Even though the story is set in Haddonfield IL, all of the cars have California license plates.
Visible crew/equipment: There is a scene where Michael Myers is hiding behind a hedge bush and Laurie and her friend go to investigate. Laurie turns around and talks and you see cigarette smoke go by the camera (John Carpenter admitted on the commentary track that he was smoking a little too close to the camera that day). (00:24:10)
Visible crew/equipment: Just before Laurie stabs Michael with the knitting needle you can see that one of the window shutters is open and that the wind is ruffling the curtain. When the camera gets closer and the curtain is out of the way you can see the huge fan in the studio being used to simulate the wind outside. (01:19:50)
Revealing mistake: When Tommy is carrying the pumpkin from school, you can see it has a cut in it to make it crack open when he falls down.
Continuity mistake: In the beginning of the movie, Laurie runs into Tommy while she is walking to school, meaning that they live near each other; however, later on in the movie, when Laurie has to babysit Tommy, Annie has to drive her to Tommy's house, which is located on the other side of town.
Visible crew/equipment: When Annie is locked in the laundry room, there's a scene where the phone is ringing incessantly and the camera pans slowly to the right showing little Lindsay Wallace who's too busy watching television to answer the phone. If you watch this scene in widescreen, you'll see a crew member lurking in the shadows (left side of the screen) on the wall. It appears they are trying to avoid being seen. (00:47:10)
Other mistake: Immediately after the scene where Laurie is talking to Linda while she is being strangled by Michael, Laurie looks out the window and sees the LOWER level of the other house lights turned on. Michael was on the upper level and could not have gotten down the stairs to the first level in time (1 or 2 seconds) to have turn on the lights.